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The CMR Convention is an international agreement which regulates the rules for the carriage of goods by international road transport. This document contains rules that determine the liability of the carrier for the cargo, the procedure for filing claims and the regulation of other issues related to road transport.

Trucking is the most popular way to deliver commercial cargo in Europe and the CIS countries. Their standard order is:

1. Conclusion of the contract. This is the initial stage at which a contract for the carriage of goods is concluded between the carrier and the customer. The contract specifies the conditions of transportation, including the volume of cargo, delivery time and cost of transportation.

2. Registration of documents for the cargo. Before loading the cargo, it is necessary to complete all the necessary documents, such as waybills, invoices and declarations. These documents contain information about the cargo, including its volume, weight, characteristics and cost.

3. Registration of permits. For the transportation of certain types of cargo, for example, dangerous or oversized cargo, special permits are required. Depending on the country and region, these may be different permits and licenses.

4. Registration of documents for unloading. Upon delivery of the cargo to the destination, it is necessary to draw up all the necessary documents for unloading the cargo, including acts of work performed and confirmations of delivery.

5. Archiving documents. It is important to keep all documents related to the transportation of goods for several years for possible verification by regulatory authorities or in case of disputes between the carrier and the customer.
The stages of air cargo transportation include the following steps:

1. Preparing cargo for shipment: the cargo must be packed and labeled in accordance with the requirements of the airline and international rules for the carriage of goods.

2. Documentation: The cargo needs various documents such as waybill, insurance policy, commercial invoice and customs documents.

3. Placement of goods on a pallet: The goods must be placed on a pallet to facilitate the process of loading and unloading.

4. Transfer of cargo to the airline.

5. Loading cargo on the plane.

6. Cargo transportation: the cargo will be transported in accordance with the route indicated in the consignment note.

7. Unloading cargo.

8. Customs procedures.

It is important to note that paperwork may vary depending on the country of origin and country of destination, as well as the type of cargo and its characteristics. Therefore, before sending the cargo, it is necessary to clarify all the requirements and conditions of transportation with the airline and the relevant authorities.
Sea shipping is of two types. Internal and external.
Domestic shipping – carried out on the territory of one country;
External shipping – carried out between countries when exporting and importing goods.
Advantages of sea cargo transportation: Low cost, possibility of transportation of large volumes, low percentage of cargo loss or damage.
Disadvantages of sea freight: Low delivery speed, low frequency of shipments.

Sea freight is the process of delivering goods by sea from one point to another. The process may vary depending on the type of cargo, type of vessel, route and other factors.
The main stages of sea freight transportation include:

1. Ordering and booking a container or place on a ship. This is usually done through logistics companies or carriers.

2. Loading cargo on the ship. This can be done in port or ashore, depending on the type of cargo.

3. Transportation of cargo on a ship. Cargo can be transported over long distances over several days or even several months, depending on the route and type of vessel.

4. Unloading cargo at the port of destination. Cargo can be unloaded ashore or stored in a warehouse until further transportation.

There are various types of ships used in the shipping process, including container ships, open-top vessels, tankers, etc. In addition, there are various rules and regulations governing the transport of goods by sea, which must be followed in order to ensure the safety and efficiency of transportation.

The main standards that regulate maritime transport are:

SOLAS (International Convention for the Safety of Life at Sea) is an international convention that sets maritime safety standards, including ship equipment requirements and safety procedures.

The IMDG (International Code for the Carriage of Dangerous Goods by Sea) is a code that sets out the rules and regulations for the carriage of dangerous goods by sea, including packaging, labeling and documentation requirements.

MARPOL (International Convention for the Prevention of Marine Pollution from Ships) is an international convention that sets standards for the protection of the marine environment from pollution, including rules for the disposal of waste and the prevention of the spilling of oil and other hazardous substances into the sea.

Hague-Visby Rules is an international agreement that sets out the rules and regulations for the carriage of goods by sea, including the carrier’s liability for loss of or damage to the goods.

The ISM Code (International Safety Management Code) is an international code that sets standards for safety on board ships, including requirements for safety management and crew training.
Invoice –

is a document that combines the functions of a consignment note, an act of work performed and an invoice for payment; it contains information about the price and the state where the product was produced.
An invoice is an invoice for paying for goods that are exported.

What it is for: for international deliveries.
Where to present: at customs.
What includes: characteristics of the product, its origin, quantity, features, terms of delivery, cost of the consignment of goods and details of the owner.
When issuing an invoice, the form must include:
departure date; surnames and names, addresses of the seller and the buyer; invoice number; data of the importer, if another company or person receives the shipment; country of origin of the product; country of consignee; inventory of goods; date of compilation; signatures of the originator and seller; bank details and payment data: account number, due date, name, address and code of the banking organization, coordination account number; recipient details.

Be sure to include in the product description:
a list of all exported items; their name; formal characteristics: model, article, serial number, etc.; exact quantity, code according to the commodity nomenclature; the cost of each copy; weight, volume and other characteristics; country of origin.

It is important to remember that an incorrectly completed invoice or an invoice with incomplete information will entail problems associated with crossing the border, paperwork and, as a result, additional costs and an increase in the delivery time of the cargo.

Packing List –

is a document that contains information about what is in a package, including the quantity, description, and weight of the items. The packing list may also include information about the dimensions of the package, the package number and other details that help identify the package and its contents.

The packing list can be used when transporting goods, when it is necessary to check that all goods indicated on the invoice are actually in the package. It can also be used for customs clearance. It describes the contents of the package and specifies what is inside.

The packing list is an important document in the supply chain, as it helps to control the movement of goods and keep records of them during the transportation process.

To prevent difficulties at customs, it is recommended to break down the packing list. The packing list breakdown should contain detailed information about each item inside the box or container, including description, quantity, price, and country of origin. As well as the customs code of the goods. This code is used to determine tariff rates and rules for imports and exports. The breakdown of the packing list must contain the customs codes for each item. This helps the customs authorities to determine the necessary tariffs and rules for import and export faster and more accurately.

A transit declaration (T1) is a document that is needed in order to transport goods through the territory of the country without performing general customs procedures. This is possible thanks to an agreement between states that allows the movement of goods under certain conditions. Thus, the transit declaration saves time and money when transporting goods between different countries. Let’s assume that the cargo follows from Turkey to Russia through the territory of Georgia. When moving through Georgian territory, the main document is a transit declaration.

An export declaration (EX1) is an important element of any transaction in foreign trade. This document is required in the process of export customs clearance in order to take the goods abroad. An export declaration is a document that is drawn up when exporting goods and contains information about the shipped cargo (its composition, cost, country of destination, etc.). It is needed in order to control the export and import of goods, keep statistics on international shipments, determine the tax base and check compliance with sanctions measures. The specifics of the execution of the document depends on the terms of delivery according to INCOTERMS 2000. In most cases, buyers decide to transfer the obligation to issue a declaration to an organization that provides transportation or forwarding services.

Steps of issuing EX1:

1. Obtaining the necessary documentation from the exporter, such as a commercial invoice, a package of documents related to the cargo (packing list, invoice), etc.

2. Filling out the declaration form with information about the product, cost, country of origin and destination.

3. Verification of the correctness of filling and confirmation by signature and seal.

4. Submission of the declaration to the relevant organizations or government agencies.

5. Processing of the declaration and issuance of a certificate to the exporter.
The declaration is closed when crossing the border or issuing CARNET TIR. To close the document, you must send a copy of the declaration to the regulatory authorities (necessarily drawn up in accordance with all the rules, with the appropriate codes and numbers).

An import declaration is a permit document confirming the legality of the import of commercial goods, that is, those that will be sold on the territory of the country and that were purchased on a foreign market.
The purpose of the import declaration is to ensure the correct valuation of goods, tax calculations, customs inspection and control. It also assists Customs and government agencies in meeting their objectives for controlling and regulating the entry of goods.
The import declaration is a mandatory document when importing goods into the country and their customs clearance. Improper execution of the import declaration may result in fines and delays in the importation process.

TIR (Transports Internationaux Routiers) is an international convention that regulates the transportation of goods in several countries. It was created to ease borders and make it easier to transport goods between countries, as well as reduce costs and improve the safety of freight transport. The TIR Convention sets standards for the use of special seals and documents that guarantee the safety of the cargo and speed up the customs control process. This simplifies and speeds up the process of transporting goods, which saves time and money, and makes international trade more efficient.
Most of the countries of the European Union and also most of the CIS countries are members of the TIR convention.
A bill of lading is a type of document that has a title value or, in other words, confirms the right to own the goods. This is a full-fledged document for accompanying and transferring goods during transportation on a ship. There are several types of bills of lading: onboard and non-onboard (on board, received for shipment), port, through, etc. The essence of all varieties of the document remains unchanged, and their difference lies only in the detailing of the features of the receipt / transfer of goods.

A bill of lading is an important document that shows who owns the cargo and is used when transporting goods on a ship. There are several types of bills of lading, which differ depending on when the cargo was loaded onto the ship and how it was delivered. The onboard bill of lading is considered the most secure document for banks and means that the cargo is on board the vessel. The off-board bill of lading confirms the receipt of cargo for transportation, but does not indicate when it was loaded onto the vessel. The through bill of lading is used for intermodal transport by different modes of transport, such as sea, air or rail. The short form of the bill of lading is used to simplify commercial documentation and is a full-fledged document of title, which is used when transporting various types of cargo
TTN (consignment note)
– a document that contains information about the cargo, sender, recipient and carrier. TTN is needed to regulate logistics processes, determine responsibility for the cargo and ensure the safety of transportation. It allows you to control the location of the cargo and the status of its transfer from the sender to the recipient.
TTN is necessary to solve a number of problems:
The TTN is the main document for controlling the transfer of goods from one person to another.
TTN contains information on the quantity and cost of goods, which helps to keep track of goods in the warehouse and in accounting.
In international trade, the TTN is a necessary document for customs clearance.
TTN is also used to calculate taxes on the transfer of goods.
The bill of lading is issued in several copies and accompanies the cargo throughout the entire journey.

CMR waybill
– a document that is filled out in order to arrange the international transportation of goods by car. It contains information about the cargo, the place and date of dispatch, the cost of transportation and other conditions. This document is very important in order to protect the rights of all participants in the transportation and simplify the customs clearance process. The CMR waybill, unlike the packing list and invoice, is standardized and always has the same format.

Air waybill AWB
– a document that is used to confirm the contract between the sender and the carrier of the cargo that will be transported by aircraft. The air waybill contains information about the cargo. Such as weight, number of seats, cost, as well as information about the sender, recipient and carrier. The air waybill is also used to check the status of a shipment and to clear customs. It is important that the air waybill have warehouse, security and customs stamps.

Sea waybill
– a document that is used for the carriage of goods by sea and confirms that the carrier undertakes to deliver the goods to the recipient indicated in the consignment note. There are several types of sea waybills: ocean, freight and linear. Sea waybills are not securities that give the right to the goods, but simply confirm the contract for the carriage of goods. Sea waybills are usually used when the form of payment is not letter of credit, the sender and recipient are the same, and the transportation time is short. Sea waybills are convenient because they eliminate the problem when documents sent by mail from the port and the cargo itself arrive at different times. This benefits all parties, including the carrier, consignee and bank.
Incoterms 2020 are international rules that define the responsibilities of the seller and the buyer in an international trade transaction.
These rules determine who bears the costs of transporting goods, who bears the risk of loss during transport, and when ownership of the goods passes.
Incoterms 2020 contains 11 conditional abbreviations, such as FCA (Free Carrier), CIF (Cost, Insurance and Freight), DDP (Delivered Duty Paid) and others. Each of them determines what obligations and risks the seller and the buyer bear in the process of delivering the goods.
Using Incoterms 2020 helps to avoid misunderstandings and disputes between the parties, simplifies the process of international trade and increases the transparency and efficiency of interaction between the seller and the buyer.
A tripartite agreement is the permission and agreement of the countries of the sender and the consignee that the transportation will be carried out by a company resident in a third country. This is not a very popular practice, since the countries whose residents are the shipper and recipient companies are interested in their citizens earning money on transportation.
There are many types of cargo car trailers, which differ in their design, purpose and specialization. Some of the more common types of cargo trailers include:

Semi-trailers are a classic truck. Semi-trailers can be of different types depending on their design: tarpaulin, refrigerated, tipper, low loader, platform and others.

Container ships are designed for the transport of sea containers.

Dump trucks are trailers with a folding back for the transport of bulk goods.

Tank semi-trailers are trailers designed for the transport of liquids and bulk materials.

Flatbed semi-trailers are trailers designed to carry a variety of goods that can be stowed on a platform. Low bed trailers are trailers designed to carry large loads such as construction vehicles, machinery and other objects that cannot be transported on conventional trailers.

Specialized trailers are trailers that are specially designed for specific tasks. For example, it can be trailers for transporting boats, trailers for transporting animals, trailers for transporting snowmobiles and much more.
Oversized transportation is a type of transportation of goods that, in size or weight, exceed the standard restrictions for the carriage of goods by road, rail, water or air transport. Such goods are often referred to as “heavy” or “oversized”.
Examples of oversized cargo include:
Large industrial equipment such as turbines, generators, boilers, etc.
Large building structures such as bridges, towers, platforms, oil and gas industry equipment, etc.
Automobiles, yachts, aircraft and other large vehicles.
Oversized shipments require special transport services and equipment, including vehicles with reinforced structures and large payloads, as well as specialized cranes, lifts, tractors, etc. In addition, such shipments often require special permits and approvals from local authorities and transport companies, as well as careful preparation and planning of the delivery route.
There are many different types of containers that are used to transport different types of cargo. Some of the more common types of containers include:

Dry containers are the most common type of container used to transport most types of dry goods such as furniture, electronics, textiles, food and many others.

Refrigerated containers are used to transport food, medicines and other goods that must be stored at a certain temperature.

Dangerous goods containers are used to transport goods that may pose a risk to the environment or personnel safety, such as chemicals, gases, explosives, etc.

Flatrack containers are open containers without side walls used for transporting oversized or non-standard cargo such as cars, construction equipment, barrels, etc.

Tank containers are used to transport various types of liquids, including oil, chemicals, and foodstuffs such as milk, wine, etc.

Open-top containers do not have a roof and are used to transport bulky or tall goods that cannot be placed in other types of containers.

Livestock containers are used to transport live animals such as livestock, pigs, sheep, birds, etc.

By size containers are:

20-foot containers (20ft) – have a length of 6.058 m, a width of 2.438 m and a height of 2.591 m. Such a container is usually used for the transport of dry cargo.

40-foot containers (40ft) – have a length of 12.192 m, a width of 2.438 m and a height of 2.591 m. This container size is also often used for the transport of dry cargo.

40′ High Ceiling Containers (40ft HC) – have the same dimensions as a standard 40′ container but are 2,896m high.

45-foot containers (45ft) – have a length of 13.716 m, a width of 2.438 m and a height of 2.591 m. This container size can be used to transport a large amount of cargo on one container vehicle.

53-foot containers (53ft) – have a length of 16.154 m, a width of 2.438 m and a height of 2.591 m. This container size is used primarily for the transportation of goods by land in North America.

There are also other sizes of containers, including 10′, 30′, 50′, 60′ and others. The choice of container size depends on the type of cargo to be transported, as well as on the specific requirements of the transport.
Dangerous goods are materials that may pose a threat to life, health, property and the environment during transport or storage. They may be liquid, gaseous, or solid, and may have various hazardous properties such as flammability, explosiveness, toxicity, etc.
Dangerous goods are divided into hazard classes according to their chemical and physical properties, as well as their potential impact on the environment. There are 9 hazard classes in total. The degree of danger of the cargo should be taken into account when choosing a carrier. Since during their transportation certain conditions must be provided.

9 types of danger according to ADR:
flammable liquids;
oxidizing agents;
toxic and infectious substances;
radioactive materials;
corrosive substances;
other dangerous substances and items.

Each class of dangerous goods has its own requirements for packaging, labeling, transportation and documentation. In addition, within each class there are subclasses that characterize the hazardous properties of the cargo in more detail.
ADR (Road Convention on the International Carriage of Dangerous Goods) is an international treaty governing the carriage of dangerous goods by road. The convention was drafted in 1957 and has been revised several times, most recently in 2019.

ADR establishes the rules and requirements for the transport of dangerous goods by road in Europe, as well as in countries that have signed this agreement. It defines hazard classes, requirements for packaging and labeling of dangerous goods, rules for transportation, document flow, as well as rules of conduct in the event of an emergency or emergency.

In order to transport dangerous goods by road in Europe, you must comply with the ADR requirements and obtain a special license for the transport of dangerous goods. In addition, carriers that transport dangerous goods must be trained and certified in accordance with ADR requirements.

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